The History and Future of Amniotic Membrane Use in Medicine

Main Article Content

A Mika Moy, OD, FAAO


amniotic membrane


The use of AM in medicine is expanding in many specialty areas of medicine including ocular applications. Although the history of the use of this tissue showed modest success in the early 1900s, newer methods of storage have made the membrane more available and expanded its use. The future of this tissue in eye care lies in the development of a drop form containing key biologics to treat patients more easily and persistently over time.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 17 | pdf Downloads 32


1. Chopra A, Thomas BS (2013) Amniotic Membrane: A Novel Material for Regeneration and Repair. J Biomim Biomater Tissue Eng 18:106. doi: 10.4172/1662-100X.1000106
2. Davis JW. Skin transplantation with a review of 550 cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Johns Hopkins Med J. Hosp. Rep. 1910; 15:307-96.
3. Stern M. The grafting of preserved amniotic membrane to burned and ulcerated surfaces, substituting skin grats. J Am Med Assoc 1913; 83: 478-80.
4. Sabella N. Use of the fetal membranes in skin grafting. Medical Records NY 1913; 83:478-80.
5. Jay RM, et al. “Amniotic membrane in clinical medicine.” Extracellular Matrix-derived Implants in Clinical Medicine. Ed. Daniel Mooradian. Elsevier: 2016, p. 151-176.
6. De Rotth A. Plastic repair of conjunctival defects with fetal membranes. Arch Ophthalmol 1940; 23: 522-5.
7. Sorsby A, Symons HM. Amniotic membrane grafts in caustic burns of the eye. Br J Ophthalmol 1946; 30: 337-41.
8. Dua HS et al. The Amniotic Membrane in Ophthalmology. Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(1): 51-76.
9. Batlle JP, Perdomo FJ. Placental membranes as a conjunctival substitute. Ophthalmology 1993; 100:107. Abstract 9ª
10. Lee SH, Tseng SCG. Amniotic membrane transplantation for persistent epithelial defects with ulceration. Am J Ophthalmol 1997; 124: 825-35.
11. The American Association of Tissue Banks. (2014, March 26) Tissue Banking: The Basics. Retrieved from
12. Tseng SCG. (2017, May) Ocular Surface Diseases as a Spectrum from Dry Eye: Insight and Novel Solutions. Paper presented at UC Berkeley School of Optometry Continuing Education Guest Lecture, Berkeley, CA.
13. Yang JD, et al. Effect of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Amniotic Fluid Cells on the Wound Healing Process in a White Rat Model. Arch Past Surg. 2013; 40(5): 496-504.
14. Underwood, M, et al. Amniotic Fluid: Not Just Fetal Urine Anymore. Journal of Perinatology. 2005; 341-348.
15. Yeu, E. (2017) Retrospective Analysis of Safety and Efficacy of Amniotic Cytokine Extract in the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome. [Power Point presentation]. Retrieved from